Electronic “hardware” consists of passive and active components which in an intelligent way are coupled together in order to perform a certain task.
The basic elements of electronics are the passive components such as:
Resistors, capacitors and coils and the way in which they react to voltage and current.
The active components are those aperforming one or several functions if supplied with a voltage or a signal, like e.g. a voltage variation or the like.
These components are among others:
Diodes, transistors, op-amp’s gates etc.